Sunday, February 23, 2020
Wi-Fi Protected Access - Research Paper Example WPA is seriously focused among researchers for providing the best solutions in this field. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is beneficial for home based users, as well as business users. The formal certification is required in the field of wireless LAN communication so making the security at the highest level that is essential. In the organizations, the use of authorized access is essential for developing a connection between users. The secured connection is maintained by the organizations and authorized access is allowed. The WPA is also equally important in a home and small offices, because sharing of data is always confidential for personal home users and in SME (Small and Medium Enterprise). In a home based and small offices the Wi-Fi connection always asks for secure type of password for authorized access (Wi-Fi Alliance, 2014). The AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is introduced for making the protection towards hardware. The three different stages of security the novel IEEE 802.11b standard, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and the IEEE 802.11i protocol. The Wi-Fi Alliance is established with the sub-part of the standard 802.11i and introduces the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). The IEEE 802.11 b composed of stages, the address filtering process of Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control), Service Set Identifiers (SSID), and the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) (Mathews and Hunt, 2007) There are solutions available that can secure the wireless LAN. Virtual Private Network (VPN) is one of the solution that is applied. A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides a secure connection by having the services of Frame Relay, Virtual Circuits (VC) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). The IP/Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)-based VPNs are latest technology in Virtual Private Network (VPN). Different types of protocols are used for making enable the protection in VPN. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is another solution for having secure and reliable
Friday, February 7, 2020
A Paper On Barack Obama's Speech in Cairo - Essay Example WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights All these issues are the main culprit in molding the world in its current state of disarray. It is understandable that all of them should be focused to obtain long term stability in our world. But in my point of view, one issue among these stands apart and is most important in the current era. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the issue of nuclear weapons and its associated conflict with Iran. Now why it is so important to address this issue is because it is the only problem if not forethought can lead to immediate destruction on a massive scale. It is not a matter of one country, race of nuclear weapon if initiated will put the whole mankind on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology the war will not last long. When nuclear weapons were initially developed they were destructive but now with the introduction of hydrogen bomb and anti matter technology they are devastating. If initiated it will lead to annihilation of our beautiful planet. Therefore, it should be our foremost responsibility to address this issue very seriously. What Barack Obama said? Regarding this specific topic Barack Obama clearly stated that this is not only about AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s interest but of the humanity as a whole. He is not fighting on the grounds of personal friction; in fact it is based upon the threat imposed by path chosen by Iran. Now in my opinion this is a valid stance from the Americans but IranÃ¢â¬â¢s response with hostility and aggression can be associated with the past history between these two countries. Also we should look into some facts here and answer few questions in order to unveil one possible reason for IranÃ¢â¬â¢s unresponsiveness. WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s the only country in the history of mankind guilty of two nuclear explosions on a heavily populated area killing thousands of people in an instance? I think we all know the answer. There have been many justifications given for this act including one which states that it reduced the durati on of war by several years and saved many lives. But the reason I bought this up is to emphasize the impact of that history on this present world. For instance, if a man is drunk and preaching about the hazards of alcohol. Is it possible that he will be acknowledged? Again there are two possibilities: listener may understand that he has an experience and knows the effect very well hence he is warning of the outcome and should be listened or listener may question that how can a person who drinks himself ask anyone else to refrain from it. Unfortunately Iran belongs to the second category and ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s assertions on this point will prove to be inadequate. What could have been said? In his speech he should have outlined if America, who has one of the biggest stockpiles of nuclear arms, plans on demolishing or at least minimizing its nuclear program. Ã¢â¬Å"Charity begins at homeÃ¢â¬ and if America claims to be a responsible country she should take solid steps to initiate a move ment by which we can get rid of these weapons of mass destruction. Also Barack Obama should have mentioned the threat imposed by the terrorists in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. And the consequences if those weapons are acquired by them. Hence, the emphasis should have been on the issue of securing such destructive warheads. We know that Iran Ã¢â¬ËclaimsÃ¢â¬â¢ that their nuclear plants are only for constructive purposes and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any intention of preparing nuclear warheads. Under present circumstances,
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The issue of deforestation is the reality today Essay A standout amongst the most pervasive issues in our reality today is the issue of deforestation. Deforestation can be depicted as \the act of clearing the common timberlands for horticulture, logging, and so forth.\ (Deforestation Statistics). Subsequent to hearing the meaning of deforestation, the vast majority would not observe this to be an extremely noteworthy issue on the planet, however, in the wake of hearing the disturbing measurements related with deforestation, most would alter their opinion. For instance, apparently, the most stunning analysis is that deforestation has brought about 80 percent of Earth\s backwoods cover being chopped down (Deforestation Statistics). In spite of the fact that the timber gathered from these rainforests over the world fill essential needs, I don\t trust it is justified regardless of the value nature needs to pay. All that matters is this: Deforestation of the world\s rainforests isn\t justified regardless of the cost paid. Rainforests are home to incalculable types of creatures, a considerable lot of which are jeopardized. By tearing down trees in colossal amounts, people are demolishing the homes of each species that may live there. When mulling over that a portion of the animal types depending on the backwoods are jeopardized, one must understand that taking part in deforestation will probably bring about the elimination of that specific species. Deforestation has just dispensed with numerous species from our planet. For instance, Michael Greenwell composes that deforestation of the Amazon alone, brought about the annihilation of 26 distinct sorts of creatures and plants in South America, and 644 different kinds were in risk of getting to be noticeably terminated (Greenwell). When taking this data in, one must understand that those 26 distinct species are always gone. This is a lasting impact of deforestation. The creatures that are surviving deforestation are compelled to escape the zone and look fo r a new haven, which may be unsafe to animals, as well as to people too. In 2009, on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, six individuals were murdered by tigers. The explanation for this is the deforestation happening in Sumatra prompted laborers encroaching upon the living spaces of these tigers, finishing with the passings of 6 individuals (Mongabay). To make matters much more severe than they as of now are, the Sumatran tiger is \fundamentally imperiled,\ and this wood operation was illicit (Mongabay). Is the wood reaped from that woodland worth gambling wiping out the remainder of the 450 Sumatran tigers on earth (Mongabay)? Notwithstanding the damage deforestation incurs on creatures, deforestation is additionally unsafe to society. Numerous locals, particularly in South America, depend enormously on the rainforest. These clans live in the backwoods and accumulate the greater part of their assets from them too. The lives of these locals are flipped around when they must choose the option to surrender their home, because the rainforest is being annihilated in any case (Consequences of Deforestation). Clans are compelled to leave all that they know and move to more possessed territories that they are to a great degree unused to. In what capacity would someone be able to who has carried on with his or her whole life managing with the assets that earth gave abruptly figure out how to be effective in a city, where he or she is required to talk the dialect and know certain abilities? Deforestation ruins endless existences of individuals living in or close to the Amazon (Consequences of Deforestation). Keeping in mind the end goal to put into point of view exactly what number of individuals are affected in such a way, an article in the Nature Conservancy site expresses that \more than 1 billion individuals living in extraordinary neediness rely upon woods for their water, fuel, or occupations\ (). Likewise, quite a bit of my family on my dad\s side lives in Brazil keeping in mind the end goal to do mission work. They live in the wilderness now and again, and would be straightforwardly influenced if the territory of the Amazon in which they dwell was to be torn down. After my family in Brazil educated me on how specifically deforestation influences the locals they work with, I started to understand that deforestation is significantly a greater amount of an issue than I had trusted it to be. Another unsafe symptom of deforestation is the impact it has on the world\s climate. Deforestation is said to be specifically identified with the issue of an Earth-wide temperature boost. By chopping down the rainforests, the measure of nursery gasses in the environment increments. Trees and plants take in risky gasses, for example, carbon dioxide, and change over them into oxygen that we as people depend on. While chopping down rainforests, we are denying ourselves of wellsprings of oxygen to inhale, and in the meantime, expanding the measure of unsafe gasses noticeable all around (Consequences of Deforestation). In farct, \deforestation is the second driving patron for carbon discharges around the world\ (Climate Change: Our Priority). Along these lines, everybody who sees the issue of an unnatural weather change as imperative ought to likewise see the issue of deforestation as an issue that requirements more consideration, since how might one battle an unnatural weather change if the second driving reason is left unaddressed? Despite the fact that I do understand that deforestation gives openings for work to individuals in regions with rainforests, and that it gives society a lot of wood utilized for building, paper, and different items, is it extremely justified regardless of the cost paid? For consistently that passes, enough trees to totally cover the territory of New York are chopped down because of deforestation (Climate Change: What We Do). What\s more, if deforestation proceeds in light of current circumstances, it is evaluated that all rainforests will be killed inside a century (Climate Change: What We Do). More than 50 percent of the found plant and creature species live in tropical rainforests, and by dispensing with the trees, we wipe out these creatures. Rainforest deforestation has significantly a greater number of cons than masters, and needs more consideration. While considering how this influences plants, creatures, the climate, and society, it is clear that deforestation isn\t justified regardless of the cost paid.
Monday, January 20, 2020
In an interview with George Lakoff, a linguistics professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Ian A. Boal examines the social, political and economic implications of language and its relationship to the conduit metaphor. The interview, published in Boal's essay, Body, Brain and Communication, takes a closer look at the conduit metaphor in connection with computers and communication on the Internet and World Wide Web. More importantly, Boal-who is also a Berkeley professor-solicits Lakoff's views of computer technology and artificial intelligence; their effects on human values and the basic way people communicate and understand information in today's world. Essentially, the conduit metaphor enables thoughts and ideas to be communicated through connecting cables and wireless transmissions using language as objects and metaphors. An effective conduit metaphor causes the listener to receive and understand the meaning behind a message without having to engage in too much thought. Comprehension of an idea is achieved intuitively, instinctively or with feeling. The conduit metaphor is a basic parable belonging to a larger family of metaphors, many of which can be found on Lakoff's Conceptual Metaphors home page at Berkeley's Cognitive Science web site, http://cogsci.berkeley.edu/. The conduit metaphor, as described by its creator Michael Reddy, suggests that the mind can interpret ideas as objects that can be put into words, and thoughts are the organization or manipulation of those objects. Reddy says the objects that make up words or language reside in a storage container, or memory, where thoughts and ideas can be retrieved or recalled when needed. When ideas are converted into words, they can be communicated to someo... ...perform many of their job functions. Just imagine, however, if computers had the ability to not only assume a particular function, but also could think and reason in the same manner as you and I. Are human beings really ready for this type of innovation? The answer to this question may come sooner that we think. Works Cited Boal, Ian A. Body, Brain and Communication: An Interview with George Lakoff. Composing Cyberspace. Ed. Richard Holeton. Boston. McGraw Hill Publishing. 1998. (21-31). Ehrenreich, Barbara. Put Your Pants On, Demonboy. Composing Cyberspace. Ed. Richard Holeton. Boston. McGraw Hill Publishing. 1998. (80). Lakoff, George. Conceptual Metaphors. 22 Mar.1994. 23 Mar. 2000. http://cogsci.berkeley.edu/ Shirley, John. Wolves of the Plateau. Composing Cyberspace. Ed. Richard Holeton. Boston. McGraw Hill Publishing. 1998. (135-141).
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Continuous studies on possible technological developments are being done everyday as initiated by private companies and the government military. Needless to say, these technologies, particularly those funded by private companies have been developed aside from making huge profits, to benefit the society in almost every aspect in their lives especially in terms of making their lives easier and more comfortable. Similarly, those developed by the government may have been initially done mostly for military and government purposes, but almost always; such technology comes to be marketed to the masses later on. Examples of which include the online technologies such as cellular phones, the computer and the internet. Cellular phones, computers and the internet have been for many years now, widely available for commercial use. Undeniably, such technologies have made casual life more productive in terms of the speed in which work can now be done. Cellular phones allow cordless communication in almost all places, all stations in the world; computers allow speedier processing of transactions, calculations and many other tasks; and the internet allows not only global communication but also better and more widely available databases of information which almost everyone with internet access can utilize. Attached with such array of commercial benefits however, are possibilities of misuse and thus disadvantages that could not only affect one individual but also huge numbers of populations at one time in general. With these, technologies come more ways of violation of individual privacy as well as security. These stem from such technologiesÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of mass connection. The number of cellular phone users has been increasing. From 1997 to 2002, there has been 10-fold increase in global usage reaching 787 million (Ã¢â¬Å"GSM to Pass One-Billion Mark This YearÃ¢â¬ ). This may mean better connection for these people but this may also mean an increase in the number of people probable of being violated of privacy. It is true that it is prohibited to access account information from private companies, but since the use of airwaves in this particular technology allows the personal tracking of the location of an individual, privacy cannot always be ensured. There are still people who have unlimited access to such information and are capable of such violation, that is, location tracking without the consent of the concerned individual. This is especially true with the number of hackers, both experimenting and professional, out practicing.Ã Individual information from private companies could also be tapped indiscriminately especially by government officials for their specific purposes. This may be beneficial (but may still be unethical) if the person concerned is a real crook, but for innocent individuals, the violation of privacy would be unwarranted. The rise of the computers and the internet creates a new breed of crime. Computers are an efficient way of storing important and sometimes company critical files. This computer function allows companyÃ¢â¬â¢s easier management and access to their files which are in many ways beneficial. But these benefits are not limited to the companies as the storage of information in the computer also allows professionals, particularly hackers, access to the information. Just recently, 12 December 2006, it was reported by CNN that a number of names and personal information were exposed when a hacker attacked the database of the computer system of the University of California, Los Angeles (Ã¢â¬Å"Hacker Attack at UCLA Affect 800,000 peopleÃ¢â¬ ). According to the same report, a survey released in October of this year showed that about a hundred colleges experienced a similar incident during the previous 12 months. The information stolen in such cases usually include names, birth dates, medical records, social security numbers, home addresses and other personal information (Ã¢â¬Å"Hacker Attack at UCLA Affect 800,000 peopleÃ¢â¬ ). Clearly, the computers and the internet allow newer and more technical way of thieving, the most controversial of which is identity theft. The use of the internet has now evolved to allow even the purchase of items from objects as simple books to even loans and transactions can now be done conveniently through the internet using the credit card. It is this nature of internet transactions that allows identity theft through the internet. According to a report done by the Federal Trade Commission in 2003, the reported form of identity theft has been limited to those involving credit card transactions. According to the same report, about 13% of the victims reported that their personal information was obtained during transactions during credit card purchases. Among those purchases include those done through the internet.Ã Such information can be used by the thief in many ways such as obtaining government documents, purchasing online, obtaining loans, housing transactions, employment and filing of tax returns (Federal Trade Commission). These are just some examples of how technology, particularly phones, the computer and the internet disadvantage individuals. There could be a lot more other ways. Phones and computers have also been used in propagating pornography especially with the increase in use of video cameras, file sharing and websites that support such. Computer viruses had been and can still be easily distributed to corrupt several company and even government files, causing significant losses both in the concerned company as well as in the society in general. Freund cited a survey of the FBI that about 500 U.S. companies suffered significant financial losses amounting to $455.8 million in 2002. Technology is a powerful tool and is undeniably beneficial to the society especially with the ease in living it contributes to every individual. But as much as it is powerful and beneficial, it can also do harm because everything with advantages can always be exploited to bring otherwise. The results that technology brings just all depend on how the user chooses to use it. Works Cited Freund, G. Ã¢â¬Å"Perspective: Hacking 2003, The New Agenda.Ã¢â¬ Cnet News.Com. Cnet Networks, Inc. 2006. Federal Trade Commission. Ã¢â¬Å"Identity Theft Survey Report.Ã¢â¬ Sep 2003. Synovate. Ã¢â¬Å"GSM to Pass One Billion Mark This Year.Ã¢â¬ 2003. Cellular.co.za. Ã¢â¬Å"Hacker Attack at UCLA Affect 800,000 People.Ã¢â¬ CNN.com. 12 December 2006. Cable News Network LLP. Ã Ã
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Friday, December 27, 2019
ABSTRACT Information security and reliability is one of the most important factors considered when selecting a communication channel. The channel must ensure that the information is free from distortion. In this report, three sources of information are analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages evaluated and a recommendation finally made about the most appropriate source that can be used to handle information about climatic change and adaptations. INTRODUCTION This report aims at analyzing a newspaper article, journal article, and a policy report. After the analysis, a conclusion is made about the reliability of the articles. When looking at the newspaper, factors like the information sources are considered. We also look at the writer and the professionalism in the article. All these factors are considered in the cases of policy article and journal article. LITERATURE REVIEW A newspaper is usually used to report on events. Such events or news are normally not first hand information and their reference citation not a requirement. A newspaper is thus suitable for current affairs. A policy article, unlike the newspaper, is written by an expert. However, it undergoes the same political influence as that of the newspaper. A journal article is written by an expert and analyzed properly. Truth is its major concern. METHODOLOGY In this report, similar information that is contained in three different articles is scrutinized for reliability. The truth in all the three articles is justified and then a conclusion drawn about their reliability. We have found out that newspapers are normally for current affairs and always have political influence; policy documents also have political influence though they are written by experts. However, journals lack political influence. ANALYSIS From the research, we have found that newspaper articles are usually not first hand information and have no proper reference. The context within which such articles are written usually lack and the method of data collection not considered. The speed with which they are written makes it completely difficult for a substantial research to be carried out so as to verify some information. Newspaper is thus suitable for very current affairs. Policy reports, as opposed to newspaper articles, are written by professionals and the arguments are clear with strong bases. However, like newspapers, they suffer from political bias. Like policy reports, journal articles are also written by professionals. In these articles, truth is of utmost importance. Thorough scrutinizations of such articles by other professionals make it possible for the truth and accuracy to be maintained. Such articles are very reliable. CONCLUSION Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the above types of articles, it is clear that journal article is the most reliable. This is due to its key aim: to tell nothing but the truth. The proper scrutiny they are subjected to by other professionals makes it completely impossible for lies. Journal article is thus the most reliable in handling issues like the climatic change and adaptations.